Wednesday, October 19, 2016

Taming long floats via the STUART method for color-knitting

Back in 2007, when I first published a post about the how-to for color knitting, I promised to show a trick for taming long floats.  I'm not sure why this has taken nearly a decade to bring the promised technique before you, but today (ta da!) I am keeping that promise.  Herewith, the STUART method for taming long floats in color knitting.

Have a look: on this finished sample, that's an 11-stitch stretch between the two purple color-patterns, and the floats run the entire 11 stitches!

(Yellow marks the center column of the run between
the color-patterns. This become important when we
get to the instructions)

In technical terms, STUART is a form of ladderback jacquard--have a look at the back--see that ladder?

The back fabric face: in STUART, the purple floats are
formed into a ladderback.

 Yet, fear not. This is not a trick for "trapping long floats," or "tacking long floats" via twisting, nor is it a trick for knitting the back at the same time as the front via dk standing (double knitting stranding).  STUART is much easier method, nowhere near as complicated as actual ladderback jacquard, and it don't let the fancy ladderback look fool you either.  This is going to be a piece of cake.

Background: Ladderback jacquard

When I first started trying to figure out extra-long carries in color knitting, I examined many commercial knits for clues. If you've ever looked at the back of a commercial color-knit, you may have noticed that the color(s) not in use are hooked up in ladders running up the fabric-back.   This method is called "ladderback jacquard."  Ladderback jacquard is a version of double knitting, but not at a 1:1 ratio. In short, the yarn in the front is knit at the regular rate, while the yarns stranded across the back are worked only in certain widely-spaced columns: this accounts for the appearance of the ladders.

If you are interested in the specific details, please let me direct you to a beautifully illustrated tutorial by fiber-artist Lorna Hamilton-Brown showing how to work this technique on a home knitting machine.

But oh boy! As clever as all of this is, it hurts my brain to think about translating this method to a hand-knitting version.  No doubt some super-clever knitter will work out how to tame long floats via double knitting at different frequencies, but that person will not be me.  I am WAY too lazy and the idea is WAY too complicated. The STUART method introduced today is inspired by the ladders on the backs of commercial knits, it is a form of ladderback jacquard, but believe me when I tell you that in STUART, the ladderbacks are worked by a much easier and very different method. SO.much.easier.

The STUART method of ladderback jacquard

STUART stands for Slip, Then Unhook And Rehook Twice. The slipping parks the middle of a long float on the fabric surface in a "catchment column," interrupting the long float into shorter floats during the knitting process.  The unhooking releases the float from its parked position, returning the floats to their original length.  The unhooking action is nothing other than letting out a ladder, as you would do to correct an error in the rows below.   The re-hooking is done twice, once to fasten up the let-out ladder of the catchment column, and once on the back face of the fabric where fastens the very long floats into a loose sort of ladder on the back.

Before we get to the illustrated step-by-step, however, I want to be clear about when it is best to work the STUART trick. STUART is a form of two-color knitting, best worked in the round.  I work this (as I work all two-color-knitting) by the "two-handed" method.  The sample which illustrates this post is part of a tube I knit, and the illustrations show only a small portion of the tube--a bit more than one repeat. Although not shown on the illustration, there were several repeats worked: in this way, the yarn was carried all the way around the tube.  This particular pattern is a repeat of 14 stitches worked over 7 rounds in height.

OK, now we're ready for the step-by step:
Slipping, Then Unhooking And Rehooking Twice.


The trick to knitting STUART is that each long float is reduced to a very manageable length: 5 stitches long.  In this, it follows the "rules" of how far to carrying yarn in two-color knitting.  (Long story short: floats longer than 5 stitches--maybe 6 at the outside--suffer from, among other things, tension problems.  The long loops on the inside also tend to catch on fingers, toes and noses, creating puckers.)

With STUART, after the 5th stitch, the float is interrupted by being parked on the fabric surface. Note that the carry-yarn is not knit, and it is not twisted, either.  Instead, it is slipped into a temporary position in front of a column called the "catchment column."  In this case, we'll use the center column of the 11-stitch run as the catchment column--that would be sixth stitch (the column marked in yellow on the opening photo).  Slipping over the catchment column is the first step in the STUART method, the "S."

How this is worked is simple.  You would knit the three purple stitches of the bar.  Next, you knit 5 stitches of pink background fabric, carrying the purple yarn loosely across the back.  This is ordinary two color knitting.  Now we are at the catchment column, column 6, and ready to slip the purple yarn to the fabric front.  The slipping itself is a three-part process.
  1. Before knitting the pink stitch in the catchment column ("cc") you bring the purple yarn forward.  
  2. Next, knit the pink stitch.  
  3. Finally, bring the purple yarn to the back. 
Here are the three parts, illustrated: 

1. Before knitting the catchment column (CC), the purple yarn
is brought forward

2. The catchment column (CC) is knitted

3. Purple yarn is brought to the back, then the
 next stitch is knitted.  The purple yarn has been
slipped over the catchment column (CC),
leaving a "blip" on the front fabric face.

What you have done is to slip the purple yarn from the fabric-back to the fabric-front before the catchment column--column 6--and then slip it again to return it to the back after the catchment column, with the end result that the purple yarn is slipped around the catchment column.  To be sure you did it right, tug a little on the purple yarn, it should slide through the fabric freely.

After the catchment-column slip, work 5 additional stitches in pink, continuing to carry the purple yarn rather loosely as a float in the back.  Finally, begin the next pattern repeat by working the three stitches of the next purple bar.

When you've worked in this manner for the entire height of the color pattern (in this case, the seven rounds of the purple rectangle), the seven slips will have made seven blips in the catchment column.  Again, there will be one blip for each row of the color pattern, as you can see on the first picture below.

Each float between color-patterns is parked
on the fabric-front in the middle of its too-long run.
This  creates one blip in the catchment column (CC) for
each row of the color pattern:
7 rows of color pattern=7 rows of slipping =7 blips in the CC.

This is what the work looks like from the back.
Each of the seven 11-stitch-long floats has been interrupted
by the catchment column, and in this way, each float
has been broken up into very manageable 5-stitch lengths

As for the correct tension, you will soon figure out the tension required: if you have doubts, you can adjust the tension by stretching the fabric out, then releasing it, just before you end the float by knitting the first stitch of the upcoming purple rectangle--this is a good way to be sure the purple floats contain enough slack where they won't pucker when the fabric is stretched. Note that the carried purple yarn-float will easily slip through the fabric and right through the catchment column at any point before you end the float : the float is loosely slipped through the fabric: it is neither twisted nor knit into place.

In this particular case, the color-pattern is quite simple: rectangular purple bars on a pink background. Therefore, for ease of handling and illustration, I chose to work a few pink rounds past the top of the purple bars.

This brings us to the unhooking stage, the "U" in STUART.  The idea here is to unhook the catchment column, thus releasing the floats parked on the fabric face. In other words, by dropping the pink stitches of the catchment column (cc) the purple blips is released from where they were slipped onto the fabric face.  Below is a photo of the fabric front after the catchment column has been unhooked.  Note how, within the dropped column, the purple loops are in front.

The catchment column (cc) has been run down
in a ladder which stops at the row where the
bottom of the color pattern starts. This releases
all the parked floats. 
Normally, I would not leave the bottom-of-the-run loop hanging loose like that--I just did it for illustration purposes.  Normally, I would have inserted a crochet hook or bobby-pin into that open loop as soon as I finished running down the column to the correct row.

The rehooking step actually has three parts: one in the catchment column, one to create the ladderback and one to permanently fasten the ladderback to the back fabric-face.

Catchment column:  In this next photo, I have begun the process of latching up the catchment column.   This is done in the usual way for re-hooking a let-out column.  Specifically, you insert a crochet hook into the bottom loop, then re-hook each ladder-rung in turn.

Do you wonder why the pink ladder-rungs are not in sight? In this case, the purple floats are in front because you originally knit the work that way, with the pink yarn behind the purple in the catchment column. Letting out the pink column does not disturb this arrangement, so the purple floats remain in front, initially.

Since you need to relatch the pink, which is behind at this point, you must carefully reach behind each purple loop in turn, to find the correct pink ladder-rung to hook up next. The easiest way to find the right rung is to locate the "tail" of neighboring stitch in the previous column (the one before the catchment column, in this case, column 5).  Tracing the tail leading from the bottom of that stitch will always lead you to the correct pink ladder-run in the correct sequence.  You can clearly see the tail/ladder rung hooked over the crochet hook in the below illustration.

I am rehooking the catchment column using
a crochet hook.  I find the correct pink
ladder-rung to hook up next, by
tracing the tail of the stitch
in the previous column.

You pause the catchment column re-latching when you get to the row in which the color pattern stops.  In this sample, pause the re-latch on row 7, as shown below. (You'll know you're pausing in the correct row, because there will no longer be purple floats hiding the pink ladder-rungs.)

The rehooking pauses at the top of the color-pattern, in this
case, row 7. 

Once your each the pausing spot, remove the crochet hook, insert a stitch-holder (a bobby-pin or a safety pin works well) and flip the work over so the back fabric face is showing.  You are now ready to do the second part of the "R" (rehooking) step--hooking up the floats into a ladderback.

Ladderback:  On the fabric back, you will see the released floats--in our sample, they are 11 stitches long: certainly too long and loose to be left that way.

The released floats are 11-stitches long--too long and
loose to be left that way. 

To begin the ladderback, simply insert the crochet hook under the bottom float and catch the second float with the hook-end of your crochet hook.  Draw the loaded hook out from under the first strand.  This forms a loose loop over the barrel of the crochet hook. Next, insert the hook under the next float up, then draw that float through the loop on the barrel. Continue in this manner.  The photo below shows the fifth float looped up around the barrel of the crochet hook and the sixth float about to be  drawn through.

Using a crochet hook to create the ladderback
from the released floats

Continue in this manner until you get to the top of the purple floats.  You'll have a roughly triangular ladderback, as shown below.

All the floats have been caught into the ladderback: the
ladderback forms a loose triangle

It is now time to fasten the ladderback to the back face of the fabric so that it remains in place throughout future wearing.  Remove the crochet hook from the top of the ladderback and insert a bobby-pin or safety pin to prevent an inadvertent run-out.  Flip the work over again so the front is showing.  You are now ready to fasten the top of the ladderback to the back face of the fabric.

Fasten the ladderback to the back fabric-face:  This is the last part of the rehooking step. It stabilizes the top of the ladderback by preventing it from shifting either horizontally or vertically.

Working from the front, remove the bobby-pin holding the loop at the top of the catchment column and re-insert your crochet hook into that top loop (marked "X" on the illustration below).  Next, remove the bobby-pin holding the top loop of the ladderback, and insert the hook into that top loop (marked "Y").   Finally, grab the next rung of the pink ladder in the catchment column (marked "Z").  Draw the rung (Z) through both top-loops (Y and X).  This fastens the top of the ladderback to the back face of the fabric.

Draw the pink rung Z through the top-loops of
ladderback and the catchment column
(loops Y and X, respectively).  This fastens
the ladderback to the back face of
the fabric.

Finish by latching up all the pink ladders remaining above the catchment column.  The below illustration shows the final result, as seen from the back face of the fabric. You can see the top of the triangular ladder, marked "Y," is permanently fastened to the fabric back.  As luck has it, the purple top of the ladderback basically does not show, not even when the fabric is stretched. This is partly because the purple loop is entirely behind the pink stitch, and partly because the loose nature of the ladderback allows the purple yarn to stretch without forming any sort of pucker.

The top of the ladderback has been
permanently fastened to the back
face of the fabric.

Finally, the last photo, below, shows what the front looks like before blocking--the yellow arrow marked the bottom of the column, the yellow asterisk marks the top. As you see, even before blocking, the tension is really not too bad.  This is because the slipped purple yarn takes up very little space between the pink stitches, so when the catchment column was knit, it had the correct amount of yarn already in it.  Stated otherwise, there is very, very little slack knit into the catchment column, because the slipped purple yarn does not, in any practical sense, "take up room" between the catchment-column stitches and its neighbors. (This is the same reason why I recommend using scrap yarn as stitch markers rather than a hard ring of any sort.)  When the catchment column is unhooked and re-hooked, there is very little distortion from extra slack.

The catchment column all latched up: even before
blocking, the distortion really isn't too bad!

By the way: through lucky coincidence, the amount of slack which slipping adds to the floats provides just the right amount of extra yarn to create the ladderback out of the floats, without causing any puckering!

FINAL POINT: Where to start the rehooking process.
  So, where do you actually start the unhooking process? The sample color-pattern is very short and very regular. If you had a more complicated pattern--especially one where the future rounds will create color patterns overlapping the catchment column, you'd want to work the unhooking step immediately after the end of each color pattern. In other words, drop the catchment column when it is easiest to undo: do not wait until you'd have to drop through a different pattern first.

Another thing to think about: this sample is geometric, very regular.  However, if you are knitting an irregular shape, you might have several rows with very long floats, followed by rows with much shorter floats.  In this case, you'd stop the catchment column and work the "unhook" step at the point in your pattern where the float is no longer "too long."  In other words, once the color-pattern you are knitting has the float come back down to something more reasonable for a regular float (5 stitches, say) then you no longer need to break up the float. It is at this point in your knitting that you'd unhook/rehook.

Bottom line: unhooking and re-hooking is a "finishing" process yes, but, unless the catchment column runs the entire length of your project, you do not wait until project-end to to unhook and re-hook. Rather, work the "UART" part of STUART as-you go: at the top of each catchment column as dictated by your color-patterns.
* * *
In upcoming posts, there will be some more examples of STUART in action, and a few variations. Til then, have fun with this.

You have been reading TECHknitting blog on STUART: a substitute easier method for
tacking long floats or 
trapping long floats or
double knit stranding floats

Monday, October 17, 2016

TECHknitting, now via e-mail

You can now sign up to get e-mail notifications when there is a new TECHknitting post.  The sign-up is located in the right ---> sidebar.

As to Ravelry, the "friends' blogs" notification does not seem to be working very well--evidently, there is something a bit off about my feed, whatever that might mean...  So, sign up and be my Ravelry-friend by all means!  Please! But if you want notifications, it'd be better to rely on e-mail.

The only other way to get notifications is via Twitter: there is a link in the right sidebar for that also --->

Facebook? Well, I did have a page on there but they kept messing with it--removing it, reinstalling it, removing it again.  We seem to be at an impasse, Facebook and I, so for right now, it's Twitter or e-mail.

I recognize myself to be a computer idiot (sorry!) but anyhow, I think this e-mail notification is a big step in the right direction. 


Monday, October 10, 2016

Smoothed circles: a jogless join for single rounds in different colors

See for yourself--no jogs
(and yes, you are looking at some
Here's a way to completely avoid the jog when knitting single rounds in different colors. Not only do you avoid the jog, but your ends are worked in at the same time.  Introducing "smoothed circles."

TECHknitting blog has tackled the subject of jogless stripes several times.  If you want to know how smoothed circles fit in with the other kinds of jogless stripes, read on.  If you're impatient, you can skip right down to the trick (and by the way?  There's a separate bonus trick at the end of this post, also...)

BACKGROUND (or: 'for heaven's sake, WHY do we need yet another kind of jogless jog?')

When you knit circular (i.e.: knit a tube on dpn's or on circular needles) you are actually knitting a spiral.  Because of this, the beginning of a round is actually one row below the end of the round.  In one-color knitting, this is not noticeable, but the failure to match up definitely shows when you go to work stripes-especially narrow stripes.  When knit, every color change shows as a "jog."

There are ways to avoid the jog but none of them work very well on the kind of single-row stripes of different colors where smoothed circles shine. Specifically--

The HELIX (barber-pole) technique does create jogless stripes of single-round color, yes, and in that regard, they are the most like smoothed circles of any jogless join.  However, they have several downsides.
  • At the start of the work where the color stripes begin, there unavoidably appear several one-color starter-stripes--one starter-stripe for each color.  This same thing happens at the end of the work.  On this linked illustration, note the bottom one-color starter-stripes of red, blue and white at the bottom of each needle-section, for further views, have a look at Grumperina's famous spiral socks
  • Barber-pole stripes slant, and the more colors you use, the more pronounced the slant.
  • The biggest drawback: barber-pole stripes are really only meant for two- three- or possibly (if you're a masochist) four colors, and those colors **can't change** over the entire length of the work or you will certainly get a jog. By contrast, with smoothed circles, each round can be a completely different color, yet no jog will appear, regardless. 
CLASSIC JOGLESS JOINS are easy to work and are visually attractive, but ...
  • they cannot be used on stripes any narrower than 3 rounds high, and certainly cannot be used for the one-round high stripes where smoothed circles work best
PICTURE FRAMING works best for stripes which contain patterns within the stripe, such as fair-isle knitting--this trick works by interrupting the jog at the same place on each round with a visually distinctive column, one, two or three stitches wide.  For single row color stripes, picture framing does not work very well because...
  • all the ends wind up where the column is.
  • when the colors change with every single round, that's a LOT of ends to work into a very narrow space, with fabric-distortion as the usual result.
By contrast, smoothed circles start and stop at random places on the fabric-back, resulting in far less distortion.

STEEKING eliminates the jog by lining up all the jogs in one place, and then using a scissors to cut the circular fabric into a flat piece right up the line of the jog. The cut-ends are stabilized, then buried in the button-bands or hidden on the reverse of the fabric. Steeking is a wonderful solution for sweater-fronts, armholes and even sweater-necks, and it works just fine on single-row-high rounds of different colors but it too has a downside...

  • steeking is not suited to tubular items knit in the rounds, such as hats, mittens, socks, sleeves.
Bottom line: Smoothed circles work where other jogless techniques do not, to avoid a jog when knitting SINGLE ROUNDS of DIFFERENT COLORS. 


The idea

In smoothed circles, each round is actually a perfect circle, with an overlapping beginning and end--this is the "smoothing" referred to by the name.  The fabric is created from stacks of these perfect circles, each starting and ending in a different place so as to avoid fabric-distortion.  Crocheters will recognize this as similar to how rounds are worked in some kinds of crocheting--the end of one round is fastened to its own beginning and each different color begins in a different place. This is a common technique in granny-square construction, for example.
* * *

The concise how-to

At round-end, each round is fastened to its own beginning by re-knitting the first three stitches, one at a time into the stitch UNDER the original stitch.  This re-knitting creates a 3-stitch wide "afterthought overlap join." This not only closes the gap between round-end and beginning, but also secures the tails without need for further finishing.  When, in the next round, you come to knit over the join, you treat each set of 2 stitches as a single stitch, knitting each set of 2 together. Each round is started in a different random spot, as far from other joins as possible--you get to the starting place by simply slipping stitches. After adjusting the final tail-tension, the tag-ends are clipped short to hang forever inside the garment, with no further ado.  To see these steps in greater detail, with lots of pictures, read on.
* * *

The illustrated how-to

Suppose you're making a hat and wish to insert several single rounds of color as decoration.  Here are the steps you would take

STEP 1: Each smoothed circle begins/ends at different place on the fabric back, as far as possible from previous joins.  In the samples pictured below, the green round being worked is atop rounds of purple, dark green, orange and so on, so it should start as far away as possible from where the purple, dark green, orange, etc. rounds started.

To get to the starting place, peek over the needles to the fabric back, figure out where you want to start, then slip the stitches from the L needle to the R needle until you get to that your target spot. When slipping, keep the stitches "open." In other words, the stitches are transferred from needle to needle with no change in orientation and no twisting.

STEP 2: in the illustrated sample, the round we're knitting is green, so once you're at your starting place, take some green yarn into your hand, leave about a two-inch tail and simply set off knitting--for this tutorial, I'm assuming you're using stockinette stitch. When you get to the end of the round, your last stitch will be on your right needle, the first stitch will be on your left needle, the work should look like the photo below.

Step 2

If we simply ended this round here, the gap between the first and last stitch would show as a hole in the fabric.  In the next several steps, we're going to fasten this gap shut using a trick called the "afterthought overlap join."

(BTW: If you'd like to brush up on the regular overlap join before reading further, here is the link -- scroll to the second trick called "overlapping.")

STEP 3: Pull the first stitch onto the right needle.  This will put it next to the last stitch, as shown below.

Step 3

Note the purple stitch under the first stitch--it is labeled "under-stitch" and picked out for you with a red arrow. This under-stitch is going to be important in the very next step.

STEP 4: Pull the under-stitch onto the left needle tip, as shown below.

Step 4

STEP 5: In steps 5 and 6, you are going to work an ordinary stockinette stitch into the under-stitch. You begin by inserting the right needle tip into the under-stitch as if to knit, then you catch the running yarn around the needle, as shown in the photo below.*(Running yarn=the yarn you knit with.)

Step 5--the right needle tip is inserted
through the under-stitch

STEP 6: The knit stitch is completed by drawing the running yarn through the under-stitch.**  The result is two green stitches drawn through the same under-stitch: the first green stitch being the first stitch of the round, and the second one being the new end-of-round stitch you just knit.  You can see both stitches on the photo below.

Step 6--the running yarn has been
drawn through the under-stitch, there
are now two green stitches
overlapped on the R needle tip

You might find that when you try to draw a second stitch through an under-stitch, the first stitch wants to slip and slide off the needle.  If so, use a spare a finger to pin that slippery little thing to the knitting needle as you pull the second stitch through.

End this step by dropping the purple under-stitch off the left needle, you do not need it any more.

For each of the next two stitches, you repeat steps 3 through 6. In other words, the second and third stitches of the row-beginning will be overlapped by two more round-ending stitches. The net result will be three sets of overlapping stitches.  After you have knit all three stitches with the running yarn, you can cut the running yarn loose.  A two-inch tail would be appropriate at this time.

The below pictures show the front and back of a completed afterthought overlap join.

Afterthought overlap join as seen
from the fabric front

The overlap as seen from the fabric-back

As you see, each under-stitch now sports two loops.  When you come to knit over the afterthought overlap join (just as when you knit over ANY overlap join) you knit each set of two stitches as if it were one single stitch.

The afterthought overlap join yields three wonderful results.
  • As mentioned, each round begins and ends on the same level, eliminating the jog
  • The gap between the first and last stitch of each row is sealed by the overlap
  • Best of all, finishing is a breeze because there are no ends to work in.  Here are the steps to finishing...
    • Tug the hanging tag-ends somewhat firmly, then stretch the fabric out again.  Repeat.  This begins the process of settling the ends within the fabric and helps determine the final length of the tag-ends.
    • Block the fabric (try steam-blocking for a quick result)
    • After blocking, re-adjust the tension for each join
    • Snip off the ends without further working-in: three-quarters of an inch is a good length for non-superwash wool, an inch-and-a-quarter or even an inch-and-a-half is good for slippery yarns such as synthetics, silk, bamboo or cotton. 
It is true that there are two tag-ends for every round. However, after the garment has been washed several times and is properly broken in, the ends will have settled into their final length.  At that time, they can be re-trimmed shorter. Not working the ends in also means each join has the minimum of bulk.  Leaving short ends dangling also greatly reduces fabric-distortion.  If you are concerned about the join pulling out, it would be better to work four or even more overlapping stitches, than to try to work in all those hanging tag-ends.

The below photo shows how the round beginning/ends are widely distributed on the fabric back, and also shows a good length for the final trim of the tag ends in wool.

the fabric-back showing 1) length of
clipped tag-ends in wool and
2) distribution of joins

This last photo is a reposting of the opening photo, showing the fabric from the front, and yes! there are several joins in the picture.

Fabric front--can you spot the joins?

More notes:

  •  Remember! when you come to work over the afterthought join, each set of two stitches is worked together as one stitch.  In other words, the six loops (3 sets of two) in the afterthought overlap join are worked as three stitches, not six.
  • If you want to know where the beginning of the round is for shaping purposes, place a marker in the fabric and work the shaping as directed, but do not use the maker for indicating color changes. The more widely distributed the joins are on the fabric-back, the better the overall look of your fabric.
  • Scrappers rejoice!  The above sample has at least three different weights of yarn: an odd Italian-made 8-ply semi bulky (the green yarn between the two oranges) a doubled baby yarn (the yellow) and several colors of worsted-weight (although the worsted is from several different manufacturers and is quite variable in itself). Because each color is only one round high, you can get away with more weight-changing than you otherwise could. Using a single weight of yarn (the lavender worsted) to make a broad stripes between the colored stripes helps unify the color-scheme and also stabilizes the overall gauge. I'll end this post with a little bonus trick which relates to broad stripes...

BONUS SUPER-GEEK trick for starting and ending wide single-color stripes (Introducing the Ha-YES trick)

Smoothed circles via "afterthought overlap joins" --the subject of the above post-- work really well for single-row different colored stripes.  But here at the end of the post, I'm going to go off on a little tangent and show you a different **bonus trick** for smoothing out the tops of wider single-color stripes, a trick called "Ha-YES."

So why have I included this bonus trick at the end of a post about smoothed circles?  Because smoothed circles are often worked on a foundation of wider single-color stripes.  As stated above, adding wider stripes has the advantage of tying together the color scheme, as well as smoothing out the gauge.  This bonus trick shows how to set up these wider single-color stripes so they provide a nice flat ring for your smoothed circles to lay upon.

When you knit a wider stripe as the base foundation for a smoothed circle, such as the lavender stripe in the sample above, you could just drop the lavender yarn, leave it hanging with a four-inch tail, slip the work a few stitches over, then start off knitting the first smoothed circle with your first color.  When you got to where you dropped the lavender, you would simply knit over that stitch. At the end of the project, you'd pull the tail of that last lavender stitch rather tight to decrease away the height difference at the round-end, then work the lavender tail in as part of the finished process, via skimming (with a sewing needle or with a knitpicker) or via weaving.  You see, as wide as the lavender stripe is, there is plenty of lavender fabric to soak up a worked-in tail without fabric-distortion.  

However, here is a little bonus trick you might like to try instead, a trick I am calling Ha-YES (stands for "Half-back-join-ish Yarn Ender & Starter"). Not only does Ha-YES work smooths the top of the main color round, eliminating the jog and setting up a foundation for a stack of smoothed circles to follow, but it also works in the tail, making finishing much easier.
  • Ha-YES is a hybrid between a short row technique (scroll to variation 3) and a sort of half-back-join--You could also think of it as a sort of variation on classic jogless jogs, in the sense that it creates a mezzanine stitch, smoothing the height difference between rounds. (Also like classic jogless jogs, Ha-YES **only works where there are at least 3 rounds of the main color** as there are in the lavender stripe.)
  • OK, ready?  What you do is, at the end of the wider lavender stripe, take the lavender yarn and double it back on itself, just like in the real back join.  Knit TWO stitches with the doubled yarn, also like in the real back join.  At the end of this, you should have a single loop of lavender yarn sitting on your R needle--a loop just about the size of a stitch. If your loop is too big or to small, rip back the two stitches just knit and adjust the amount of yarn doubled back.  After a few times of doing this, you'll "just know" how much yarn to fold back before knitting the two stitches. 
  • That single leftover loop? Leave it on your R needle, then slip the next stitch parked on your L needle onto the right needle, then snip the lavender yarn leaving a 2-inch tail.  The join is finished and you must now slip several stitches (at least) past the Ha-YES round-ending to start your first smoothed circle,  same as you slip to a new position to start any new color round. 
  • On the next round, when you come to knit over the top of the Ha-YES round-end, you essentially have 3 sets of 2 stitches, same as you would have with your afterthought overlap join.  Knit each set of 2 sts as a single stitch, turning 6 loops into 3 stitches, same as with any other overlap join.
  • However...note that the third set of 2 stitches (the last set, which is composed of the leftover loop+the stitch alongside) are worked as a k2tog, which brings the fabric-stitch stitch to the fore and hides the leftover loop on the fabric-back. If this looks familiar, it's because this is how you tie the end of a short-row into the fabric while also smoothing away the short-row's height difference--have a look at this illustration.)
  • It will have occurred to you that you can use Ha-YES to (rather undetectably) end/start ANY yarn where there are at least 3 rounds already knit/anticipated to be knit in the same color.  In other words, not only does Ha-YES provide a great foundation for smoothed circles, but you can also use Ha-YES to start or stop the yarn on any wide stripe (ha ha-yesssss!)

Til next time--


* In the illustration for step 5, the running yarn trails off to the left, as it would for continental knitting.  If knitting English-style, the yarn would trail off to the right.  However, the wrap over the needle would be identical. 

**Does the step 5 and 6 maneuver seem vaguely familiar?  Knitting into the under-stitch is very similar to a trick called "knitting into the stitch below."  The important difference between them is, when knitting into the under-stitch, you wind up with two loops on your needle, whereas with knitting into the stitch below, you do not. 

Knitting into the under-stitch is also first cousin to a different trick called "nearly invisible increase."  However, knitting into the under-stitch is worked somewhat differently, and most importantly, does not increase your stitch count, whereas nearly invisible increase increase. As stated in the text, when you come to each set of two overlapped stitches arising out of the same under-stitch, you knit them together as one, instead of treating each loop as a separate stitch.  In this way, your stitch count remains the same.

A final thought about steps 4, 5 and 6: pretty quick, you'll discover a shortcut--after you place the original beginning stitch onto the R needle, you can knit directly into the under-stitch without first propping that onto the L needle tip.  This collapses steps 4, 5 and 6 into one quick jab-grab-drag. In fact, once up the learning curve, overlapping each round-end and slipping your way to where the next round starts will go PDQ (as long as you can remember where you put the scissors down at the end of the previous round!)

* * *
You have been reading: TECHknitting on one row high stripes (1 row color stripes)

Thursday, April 28, 2016

(Housekeeping) New blog template under construction

Notice anything new?  TECHknitting blog is coming to you via a new template.

Why?  Way too many people said the site just didn't work on mobile devices.  Plus, it's good to shake things up every few years.

If something about this template isn't working for you, I'd appreciate your telling me.  There are still a few bugs in the commenting process--it works with some phones, but not others, evidently.  Still working on this...

Some great new features:  If you click on a photo, you get ALL the photos in that post, try it.  Easier than wading through text if all you want is a reminder of the how-to.

Navigation is easier, too: now there are tabs at the top of the page which will take you straight to the indexes.


Wednesday, April 27, 2016

Afterthought reversible cable-ette border

afterthought cable-ette border as seen from the knit side
Afterthought cable-ette border
--knit side
What if you could knit a straight-up blob of of stockinette when you're tired and in need of comfort, but then, when you are peppy and in need of a challenge, you could tinker around to convert your dull blob into exciting texture knitting?

Well, you can. Today's TECHknitting post shows how to put an afterthought cable-ette border onto a straight stretch of stockinette.  This swatch was knit plain, and the border put on afterwards.

As a special bonus, the default of this trick is reversible, creating cable-ette borders on both fabric faces, perfect for scarves or afghan panels, also for hats or socks with a turn-up-turn-down brim or cuff.  However, this trick can also be modified for cable-ettes on one fabric face only, better for non-reversible items such as sweaters.

reversible afterthought cable-etteborder
In truth, reversible afterthought cable-ettes are merely a variation on the trick TECHknitting blog has already shown: the trick of converting a stockinette fabric into a ribbed fabric.  However, cable-ette borders are WAAAAAY cuter than ribbing, also more impressive for presents and the like. And even if you have never worked a cable in your life, I promise you can work this trick.

Step 1: (Creates the stockinette fabric you'll tinker with with afterward.) CO however many stitches you desire and knit a fabric blank in stockinette.  Reversible cable-ette borders take up 7 stitches on each fabric edge, and span over 6 rows (+ a couple extra top and bottom so the cable-ettes are centered in the fabric), so plan your stockinette fabric accordingly.  For comparison purposes, the little swatch knit for this post was worked over 27 stitches in worsted-weight yarn at a stitch gauge of 5 st/in. Every stitch in every row was worked (there was not a slipped selvedge).  If you do have a slipped selvedge, it won't look bad, but it will not look like this swatch.

Straight-up stockinette is excellent TV knitting.  For the impatient, a knitting machine very quickly creates reams of stockinette. (In fact, knitting machine owners might find inserting afterthought texture patterns easier than hunching over the machine to create texture patterns as-you-go: just saying, all you machine knitters!)(And hellooo all you loom knitters, too!)

Step 2: (Creates column 1-B) Place all the stitches at the top of the fabric on a stitch holder. With the nubbly reverse-stockinette (purl) fabric face towards you, release the third stitch from the L selvedge off the stitch holder, then drop down this column all the way to within 1 stitch of the fabric-bottom.  Next, latch up the resulting ladder as a knit rib, by which I mean a column of knit stitches on a reverse stockinette (purl) background. A seed stitcher tool is excellent for this, a crochet hook is just fine.  Replace the top stitch of the column on the stitch holder. We call this first column made "column 1-B," because it is the first column made on the back face of the fabric.

Step 3: (Creates column 2-B, being the second column created on the back) With the nubbly reverse-stockinette (purl) fabric face towards you, drop down the fifth column from the left hand side. Latch up 5 stitches as a knit rib.  In the photo-essay below, this stitch is shown in blue.  Do not yet latch up the sixth ladder-rung (shown in green, below) Instead work this next rung as a "pinch stitch."

Here is a photo essay on how to do the pinch stitch (click each illustration to enlarge).  Note that there is no reason you'd need to mark the sixth stitch in the neighboring column with a pin, I just did it that way so you could easily see what was going on.

Step 1: set up

Step 2: ready to pull through the ladder

Step 3: final result

If the photos didn't do it for you, here is a little a mini-video of performing the pinch-stitch. Although the video isn't color-coded, it does show the actual motion of inserting through the two arms of the neighboring stitch and drawing the sixth ladder through to "pinch off" a cable-ette.

(If the video won't load for you, here is the URL:

Step 4: Latch up five additional ladders in the normal manner.  When you get to the sixth ladder-rung, work a pinch stitch as you did in step 3. Continue latching and pinch-stitching your way to the top of the column, then replace the stitch on the stitch holder. Column 2-B is now complete, and you have created the back cable-ette.

Step 5:  (Naming column 1-F) When you now flip the fabric over so the smooth knit fabric face is towards you, you will see that a new column has magically appeared: the column of stitches between columns 1-B and 2-B now appears on the front fabric face as a knit column between two purl columns.  (You don't actually do anything in this step, it's just listed as a step in order to give this already-created column a name.) This magically appearing column is named "1-F" because it is the first column on the front fabric face.

Step 6: (Creates column 2-F, the second column on the fabric front) With the smooth front fabric face towards you, release the sixth stitch from the RIGHT selvedge, then drop this column down to within 10 stitches of the fabric bottom.

(Note: unlike the two back columns, which were latched up as knit stitches on a purl background, this column is going to be latched up as a knit column on a knit background)

Insert the crochet hook into the loop heading up the column--this would be equal to the 10th stitch up from the bottom.  Maintain this loop on the crochet hook. Work our old friend the pinch-stitch by inserting sideways under the two arms of the corresponding stitch of column 1-F (that's the column which magically appeared).  As on the back, the direction to insert the crochet hook is from the selvedge side towards the fabric center.

Step 7: Latch up five additional ladder-rungs in the normal manner, then repeat the sideways insertion of the pinch-stitch on the sixth ladder-rung.  Repeat this sequence, latching and pinch-stitching until the top of the column is reached.  Return the stitch at the top of column 2-F to the stitch holder.  You'll now have a vertical chain of cable-ettes on the front fabric face and another chain of cable-ettes on the back fabric face.  The final step is to create a border to these reversible cable-ettes which is step 8.

Step 8: (Creates column 3-B, the third column on the fabric back) With the reverse-stockinette (purl)  fabric face towards you, release 7th stitch from the left selvedge and ladder it down to within 1 stitch of the fabric bottom.  Latch up this column all the way to the top as a knit rib--a knit column on a purl background.

To create a matching reversible cable-ette border on the other edge of your fabric, reverse the words right and left in the directions.  If this gets confusing, remember that you start by making a knit rib on the purl fabric face by dropping the third stitch in from the selvedge while holding the fabric with the purl side facing you.  Once this first column is in, it gets much easier to figure out how to reverse the instructions.

Geek notes:
  • Uses: You can use the basic technique to create a fabric with additional strips of cable-ettes running between the borders--messing around will reveal a lot about spacing, stitch count* and the like!  All-over fabric (looks like smocking) is possible also.**
  • Row repeats: There is nothing sacred about the row repeat given here.  Just make sure that the pinch stitch forming the bottom of the cable-ette on one fabric face is worked on the row which forms the middle of the cable-ette ring on the other fabric face, so the pinch-stitches don't distort the fabric on the same row on both fabric faces. 
  • Start short, end short: you'll get cable-ettes better centered on the bottom edge if you actually work your first cable-ette short: make the first back pinch stitch on the 5th st up from the bottom (which is the fourth ladder--remember, you don't drop all the way to the bottom on the back columns, you drop to within 1 stitch of the bottom!) and then work your first front pinch stitch 8 sts up from the bottom.  I didn't write the pattern that way because I wanted the photo-essay to work for every repeat, but there is nothing stopping you from modifying the first row repeat in this way. Naturally, you'd stop in a similar position at the top. 
  • Reversible/one sided: There is no reason you'd have to make cable-ettes on both fabric faces: if you don't need reversible fabric (like for a sweater) just make cable-ettes on one fabric face by not working the pinch-stitch on the second column of the side which will not be on display (the inside of the sweater, for example).
  • Or, take the reversible/non-reversible idea one step further: on the brim of a hat or the top cuff of a sock, make the cable-ettes reversible a bit further than you think the deepest fold-over will ever go.  Past that, revert to non-reversible cable-ettes. 
  • Garter stitch: It is possible to work afterthought cable-ettes on garter stitch, but the result isn't all that great. Cable-ettes are essentially ribbing, which, although narrower than stockinette works up at the same length. Therefore--like all stockinette-length fabrics, cable-ettes will wind up longer than garter stitch. This leads to fabric-distortion.
  • Dress up the middle: Looking for a way to dress up the blank middle of the stockinette?  How about pinstripes? (Another afterthought technique!)
Have fun with this!--TK

*Super-geek note on stitch count:
--As an edging-border, the first knit rib is created on the third stitch from the selvedge. This allows for two fabric-edge stitches to act as the outermost edge of the pattern.  Yet, this is a special case because the curl of stockinette combined with the mechanics of a knit edge stitch means these two edge stitches look and act like one. Worked away from the fabric-edge, there is no such curl, and therefore, no need to allow two border stitches.  Depending on your fabric design, however, you may have to add a rib to take the place of the two-stitch curl. Or, you might need to take out a column (Column 3B) if you're not planning to border the cable-ettes. Stated otherwise, away from the edge, the repeat for a strip of cable-ettes changes because your actual repeat is going to depend on whether you space out the cable-ette strips with plain stitches (and if so, how many) or border then with plain columns (and if so, how many).

** Super-duper geek note on all-over fabric:
You can make an all-over fabric as follows: Rather than being latched up plain, column 3-B would pinch off the middle of each cable-ette of column 2B.  You would then would add a column 3-F and have that pinch off in the middle of the cable-ette in column 2F.  You'd then add 4-B, pinching off 3B, then 4-F pinching off 3-F, etc.  

This sort of all-over fabric is a species of smocking, and a sort of cousin to a different afterthought technique for smocking shown a on TECHknitting a few years ago. Smocking draws in (makes fabric narrower) and either of these tricks would be a nifty fix for a garment too loose in the shoulder, around the waist, etc.  Afterthought smocking of any kind is an easy way to add shaping (and rescue too-loose garments!) after the fact.

Monday, April 18, 2016

Duplicate Stitching via Netting (part 2 of a series).

FO of today's trick:
duplicate st on netting
Today's trick, duplicate stitch on netting, sets out to solve a major problem with classic duplicate stitch. So, what is that problem? Well, classic duplicate stitch is where you sew (embroider) a whole new "stitch" duplicating (following exactly) the path of a stitch in the underlying fabric.

What you're doing is cramming TWO yarns in where one yarn was before.  As a repair on a thinning elbow or sock heel, 2-into-1 is no problem--you WANT to thicken the fabric.  But if you're doing it for decorative purposes, like the color-progression band on this sample hat, this 2-into-1 trick yields a tendency to stiff, thick fabric.

There ARE tricks to minimize this thickness, such as using a thinner yarn, doubled to improve coverage, and those tricks were described in the the last post. But, although these tricks certainly improve the situation, they can't solve the fundamental problem that two yarns are being crammed in where one was before.

A few years ago, I got to thinking. You know how needlepoint is worked over an open-mesh canvas? And how, despite starting off as a thin, bare canvas, a finished needlepoint project covers the canvas completely? Well, what if you could knit a sort of open-work fabric, very thin, and then afterwords work the duplicate stitch over this thinner fabric, a sort of "needlepoint-izing" trick for duplicate stitch?

It struck me that if the guide-fabric was knit thin enough, the finished duplicate stitch would be nearly the same thickness as the surrounding "real" knitting.   Well, it took a while and a bunch of experiments, but I have worked out this needlepoint-inspired trick, which  I call "duplicate stitching on netting."

One picture is worth a thousand words.  So, here is that picture, a close-up of the sample hat in progress.

At the left of the photo, labled "netting," you're looking at the still-uncovered part of a stripe which was knit of very thin yarn just above the ribbing of the sample hat in a 5-row-high band.  Netting is simply stockinette fabric knit in a very thin, very tough yarn called sock-reinforcement yarn. Although the netting yarn is far thinner than the main fabric, it is worked on the same needles at the same gauge as the main fabric.

The sample hat was an ordinary tam sort of pattern.  To set up the work, I knit the ribbing, then two rows of black, then five rows of netting, then two more rows of black, then the rest of the hat according to the pattern (which, to be frank, I made up as I went along).  At the end, I duplicate stitched squares in a color progression all the way around the hat covering the netting. Each duplicate-stitched color-block is separated from the next by a duplicate-stitched 1-column-wide black border.

 At the right of the photo, you can see a black-bordered orange square of duplicate stitch. If you look back at the left side of the photo, you'll note the black border being worked in duplicate stitch using a sewing needle and a cut length of yarn: this is the set up for a new color-block which will be duplicate stitched right next to the orange block.

The color-blocks go all the way around the hat, there are 16 of them.  Sixteen different colors-blocks on each of five rows, each block separated from the next with 1-column-wide black border--this would be a nightmare of tangled yarn if knit using bobbins (intarsia-work) and could not be knit stranded.  Duplicate stitch is the only real choice of method here.

Advantages and disadvantages
The main advantages are looks and feel.  As applied to this project, working the duplicate stitch on netting made the hat a lot more wearable than it would have been via classic duplicate stitching.

Above are two additional photos of the hat, showing how it looks on the head. With these photos, I think you can see that the colored band acts (flexes) and looks pretty close to the main fabric. 

Yet, as with all things, there is a trade off.

*Fussy: You do get a much nicer fabric with netting than with the classical method but the end result is a more fussy, delicate fabric.  My color-progression hat was lined before wearing to protect the rather delicate netting, you can see the blue lining in the photo below.  The lining also hides the not-very-lovely insides.  This photo also shows another advantage to working on netting, which is that the result is thin enough to BE lined! If a classic duplicate-stitched hat were lined, it might (it would!) end up to too stiff to even wear. 

The inside of the color progression-hat is lined to protect the netting (and frankly, to hide the back of the duplicate stitching)

*For casual projects, a short and wide insert is best: Netting might better be restricted to a short, wide area, such as the five-row high band which runs all the way across the width of the sample hat. In this way, the insert is as wide as the fabric. In other words, you knit a stripe of netting, bounded top and bottom by the main fabric, but without any borders at left or right.   

*Larger projects are far more complex: In a larger project, such as the sample cushion-top project below, the whole project becomes more complicated in both the knitting AND the duplicate stitch.  Knitting the netting as an insert with side-borders of main fabric is more challenging than knitting an unbordered stripe PLUS you have to be willing to seriously tackle the duplicate stitching as a "real" embroidery project. (There is more on these issues below.)

*Works best on non-superwash wool:  Superwash wool gets stringy when you wash it, and is intended to be machine-dried to fluff it back up again.  Machine drying is fairly tough on fabrics, and duplicate stitching on netting is too delicate for such rough treatment. Further, non-woolen fabric are much slicker than wool, lacking the built-in "velcro action" of wool's microscopic scales.  The slicker the fabric, the less successful the duplicate stitching. The best result is plain old wool-on-wool.

*Stretching: when you s-t-r-e-t-c-h duplicate work knit on netting you are pretty much going to see the netting, and the greater the number of discrete blobs of color you embroider in, the more this is true. There ARE tricks to minimize having the netting show when stretched (more below) but you can never totally eliminate this issue. (And yes, stretching is an issue with classic duplicate stitching, too!)

*Not like "real knitting:" No matter how you do duplicate stitch, whether on netting or in the classic method, it is never going to look and feel exactly like "real knit fabric," no, never--and this is especially so on the back of the fabric. It's just that with netting, the result is MORE like "real knit fabric" than with classic duplicate stitching.
Well, if I haven't scared you off with all these caveats--if you're still interested--let's go...

"Sheinman's law" (use the right tools)
Many years ago, a brilliant carpenter by the last name of Sheinman told me "if the work is too hard, you're using the wrong tool." This seemingly simple precept has guided me over the years: when things get too hard in knitting, there must be another tool out there to make it easier. As I have worked out the details of duplicate stitch on netting, below are the tools which pass the test of Sheinman's law.

Sock reinforcement yarn comes in lots of colors beyond white
Sock reinforcement yarn
*To knit the netting, you need a thinner yarn, and I've already told you that the yarn I recommend is called sock reinforcement yarn.  This is thin, quite strong and quite tough--it has a high nylon content.  Its German name is "Beilaufgarn," literally: "running-alongside yarn."  It might be a bit hard to find, especially in the US, but definitely worth hunting out. Naturally, if your duplicate stitching is to be mainly in a certain color, you could knit the netting in that color, also: the sock reinforcement yarn comes in lots of colors.

* On netting, work the duplicate stitch using the same weight of yarn as you used to knit the main fabric. (This is different than with classic duplicate stitch, where a thin yarn, doubled, works better.) For the hat above and sample pillow top, below, the main fabric was knit in worsted weight wool in a cream color.  On the hat, I used several strands of Paternayan Persian Wool, and on the pillow top, the embroidery was done with scraps of worsted weight wool.  One exception: if the yarn from which the main fabric is knit is a light, fluffy, delicate yarn--a 4-ply Merino, for example--substitute a stiffer yarn of the same weight for the duplicate-stitch embroidery. This is because light and fluffy yarns do not stand up to being threaded through the eye of a needle and dragged through the fabric time and time again, as happens with sewing.

*To apply the duplicate stitch, use a yarn needle with a blunt point and a large eye.  A thick, straight, blunt-nosed needle like this avoids yarn-splitting, yielding a fabric which looks more like a knit one. Try to avoid yarn needles with a flared eye, these distort the fabric. Plastic yarn needles work in a pinch, metal are better.

*Although it LOOKS like knitting, duplicate stitching is actually a form of decorative SEWING.  As with all decorative sewing (quilting, embroidery, cross-stitch, needlepoint) the larger the area you want to complete, the harder it is to work in your lap. This is especially so with today's trick because the netting will collapse if the top yarn is pulled at all tight.  Unless you ** really like needlework ** such as cross-stitch or needlepoint, I'd recommend keeping the netting to a few rows high only. Otherwise, you have got yourself a serious embroidery project requiring serious embroidery tools.  The 5-row high band of netting on sample hat was small enough to easily work the duplicate embroidery in my lap, no problem (in fact, I did the duplicate stitching on a long flight). By contrast, for the sample pillow, heavy artillery was required. I tacked (tacking=rough and temporary stitches) the pillow-top into an embroidery frame--a left-over from my needlepointing days. (Don't use a hoop frame, however: that would ruin the fabric!) Below is a photo of the pillow-top tacked into the embroidery frame.

Planning the work, knitting the netting
Spontaneity is out. You have to knit your netting where you later plan to duplicate stitch.  Easiest is the way that is done in the sample hat: five rows are worked in netting, and the duplicate stitch goes all the way across the entire bottom of the hat above the ribbing, in a band.  The hat was knit flat, eliminating the problem of a "jog" at the beginning and end of the duplicate stitch band. In the planning stage, an extra stitch was put in on each side of the fabric, to allow one stitch from each side to be consumed in the seam. The hat was seamed up before the duplicate stitching began, and one of the duplicate-stitch boxes of color was planned to go right over the seam in the netting, thus holding it together better and disguising the seam.

Complex project-example of a pillow top
If you're willing to engage in serious embroidery-scale duplicate work, like this sample cushion-top, you have to work the netting as an insert, as shown below at left.

Here's the recipe for the sample pillow-top, which measures 61 stitches wide X 84 rows high, with a 17 stitch wide x 24 stitch high duplicate-stitch insert centered in the middle.

* Step 1: Prepare and set aside a smaller ball of the main yarn
*Step 2: CO 61 stitches and knit the bottom part of the fabric in stockinette stitch with a single strand of worsted weight yarn at a gauge of 5 sts/inch and 7 rows/inch.
*Step 3: On row 30,  place markers 22 stitches in from each edge.
*Step 4: Continuing in stockinette, on row 31...
  • Work the 22 stitches to the first marker from the main ball of yarn, remove marker.
  • Work the next 17 sts to the next marker worked with sock reinforcement yarn, worked at the same gauge as the main yarn. Remove marker.
  • Work the last 22 sts of the row using the previously-prepared smaller ball of main yarn.  
Step 4 is repeated for 24 rows. In other words, the edge 22 sts on both sides are worked in main yarn--each from a separate ball--while the center 17 sts were worked in sock-reinforcement yarn.  For the last 23 rows of the insert, the sock reinforcement yarn must be twisted over its neighboring main yarn before you set off working with it, whether you are knitting or purling.  The row-starting twist is how the insert remains attached to the stitches on both sides. Here is a photo where these twists are circled.  I have colorized red the actual twists for visibility. When you come to work the duplicate stitch, you ignore the twists, they are not stitches.

Where the insert meets the main fabric--close-up
*Step 5: After the 24 rows of the insert, yarn from the smaller ball and the insert-yarn are broken off and the following 30 rows are worked in the main yarn from the larger ball.  In this particular case, I converted pair of purl columns on both sides of the insert as a set-up for pinstripes which I planned to add afterward, along with the duplicate stitching. The pillow-top was then cast off.

Geek notes:

  • You need not insert a square.  If you wanted to insert a shape--a heart for example--you could knit a heart-shaped insert. 
  • For an insert in a circular garment (e.g. sweater knit in-the-round) you would work the netting insert via the trick called "intarsia in the round." When (if?) TECHknitting blog gets to that subject, I'll insert a link here.  Until then, google is your friend. 
Be gentle!
The actual duplicate stitching itself is done in the identical manner to classic duplicate stitching: it is the underlying fabric which changes, not the duplicate stitching itself.  The how-to was covered in the last post, the tools and techniques for success on netting are set forth above.

The important difference is that the netting is thin and so you cannot tug your stitches to achieve an even tension as you could on the thicker fabric of the classic method.  Instead, you must adjust the stitches gently.

duplicate stitch on netting--work in progress
And, even though I already said this when talking about tools, I'm going to repeat myself. Either keep the netting to a relatively small area: an area small enough to keep spread out with your non-dominant hand like the five-row high stripe on the hat OR, with a large insert, honor the craft for what it is--embroidery--and work it as such.  In other words, for a larger insert, best is to tack your project into an embroidery frame.

The work tacked into an embroidery frame with a few duplicate stitches worked in the main color at the bottom corners. 

The frame holds the fabric stretched out for you, preventing collapse.  Further, since your hands aren't holding the fabric, this lets you adjust the duplicate-stitch tension with both hands: one above and one below the fabric (same way as embroidery has been done for centuries) (and how hand-quilting is done today.)

Whether your project is a few rows high or a larger insert, in your finishing work you have to deal with several problems.
  • duplicate stitching is not really knitted fabric. At the edge where one color meets another, there is no real connection between the rows and columns.  Result: when you stretch the garment, the netting shows between the colors.
  • sometimes, the netting stubbornly wants to show, just like the background fabric does in classic duplicate stitching.  You'd think careful overstitching would hide the netting, but sometimes it has a mind of its own.
  • many, many tails to work in (this is a problem with all sorts of duplicate stitching, heck, any sort of embroidery at all)

Fortunately, you can solve these problems with a little fudging around on the fabric back, turning the disadvantage of many tails into an advantage.  You do this by employing your tails two ways.

*Work the ends UNDER the netting.  This shoves the netting towards the fabric-back and helps prevent it from showing on the front. Here is a close-up photo showing the several stages of working in a tail under the netting.  (This illustration shows using a knit-picker to skim in ends, but the same result can be obtained by skimming-in with a sewing needle.)

With the knit-picker, the set up was to open the latch of the knit-picker, then insert the knit-picker up into the fabric back, always working UNDER the arms of the netting and THROUGH a ply or two of the yarn used for the duplicate-stitching.  After the set-up, the situation was as pictured below.

Once your knit picker is in position, step 1 is to wind the tail you've working in UNDER the hook of the knit-picker, the tail is shown by the circle, winding it under the hook is shown by the arrow.  Step 2 is to swing shut (up) the little latch of the knit-picker (colorized red) locking in the end.  Step 3 is to withdraw the loaded and locked knit-picker downwards, thus drawing the end under the netting and through some bits of the duplicate-stitching.  Because the tails are worked in under the netting, this lessens the chance that the netting will show on the front side. 

*The second good thing to do is to work the tails in over the borders between colors. This cross-column, cross-color weaving solidifies the fabric.  (This is very similar to the trick of stabilizing the braid-back in Fake Latvian Braid (FLB).) However, don't go overboard and weave your ends in too enthusiastically all around, or you will weave yourself right back to a stiff, unpleasant fabric, undoing the advantage of having worked on netting.

*You'll also note that I sewed beads onto the project. (Click photo to enlarge) My taste isn't usually THIS gaudy, but I wanted to demo that there is another way of solidifying the fabric back, and that is with ordinary polyester sewing thread worked along the back face of the fabric.  Because the sewing-thread trick is really hard to photograph, I thought I better throw some beads on the thread so you could see that it had been done. (Then, once I got started with the beads, my inner 6-year old said "wheeee" and took over the color-design, adding tufts plus more, more, more beads all over the place!)

Fudging around on the back helps solidify the fabric, yes, but isn't very pretty, and neither is the netting itself.  The hat was lined, but even with the best will in the world, the inside of the pillow-top is messy, as you see.

Therefore, with a sweater,  consider saving the trick for a pull-over, rather than a cardigan, so that the mess will never show.  For an afghan, line it or use it as a wall-hanging.

One final trick: if the netting simply insists on showing up as a little white dot here and there on the fabric-front, a fabric-marker makes the white dot disappear.  Just make sure you've got a PERMANENT marker in a matching color to your duplicate stitching.

Have fun with this (but first try it out on a small sample to see if you like it!)

PS:  I made Ravelry project pages for the color-progression hat and the pillow-top.  Those have a bit more detail as to each project. The pillow-top page has the chart I used and some notes about attaching the insert to the main fabric at the sides.